Cold Chain Potential customers in India

Cold Chain Potential customers in India

A cold storage space chain is certainly a temperature-controlled source chain. An unbroken frigid chain is an uninterrupted group of warehouse and distribution actions which maintain a given temperature range. It is used to greatly help lengthen and make certain the shelf existence of products such as marine products, frozen, clean agricultural make, photographic film, pharmaceutical medicines and chemical compounds. The chain must begin at the development/farm level (e.g. harvest methods, preprocessing, Pre-cooling) and cover up to the consumer level or at least to the retail level. A well managed cold chain minimizes spoilage, retains the caliber of the perishable items and guarantees a cheap delivery to the buyer given satisfactory attention for customer support. The main characteristic of the chain is normally that if the links is lacking or is weak, the whole system fails.

The Cool chain logistics and offer chain control system’s infrastructure generally consists of:

Pre-cooling facilities

Refrigerated Carrier

Cold Storages



Information Management devices (Traceability and Monitoring etc.)

Fig: Outline of a typical Cold Chain

Some Snaps of chilly storages…

Global Situation Analysis

Today shippers of perishable goods face a range of issues in getting their products to market in the most effective and affordable manner, but lack of capability in the logistics and warehouse program industry isn’t one of them. The need for temperature manipulated storage systems for storing both foodstuff and non food is increasing in many traditional and emerging market segments worldwide. The suppliers and retailers are moving to emerging markets like Latin America and Asia, together with the changing preferences and tastes of customers in more aged market places, is having a strong impact on the logistics industry. This has led to high levels of investment by logistics corporations and their associated suppliers because they have:

They have gone for acquisition or entered into alliance with regional companies for getting usage of these markets

They have established cold storage enabled functions in the areas to serve the growth in affluence of native consumers

Simultaneously, demand for perishable items from these emerging marketplaces is increasing, with a higher level of both perishable food and non foods staying transported to the considerably more traditional western marketplaces of the US and Europe. That is creating problem on the already jam-packed transport routes .Increasing volumes will be resulting in congestion issues at main ports of the environment. Cold chain market is showing tremendous increase in France, Germany, holland, Spain and Brazil. Total capacity for these countries for 2008 is usually 6,350.32 million cubic legs (179.82 million cubic meters).The industry keeps growing globally at approximately 15 percent (IARW Report 2009).The growth rate for China and India will be higher in comparison to global standard. Both have nearly doubled their potential in last ten years

A phenomenal transformation is currently occurring that may significantly affect a multi-billion dollar global cool chain industry. The projected twelve-monthly wastage of perishable goods worldwide is 35 billion dollars. There are tremendous opportunities for companies to tell apart themselves in the market place through effectively leveraging the upcoming technologies that improve logistics and offer chains. Just about all agribusinesses and Buyer Packaged Goods (CPG) businesses are not merely considering process improvements of their logistics and supply chains nonetheless they are buying and overhauling the complete business model and strategies to survive in the continually changing competitive environment. Especially for manufacturing and retailing businesses handling temperature sensitive meals and non foods, the substantial challenges may be emphasized by the excess cold-chain logistics involved with successfully preserving and handling the products.

Other converging and substantial problems such as for example fierce competition, strict federal government regulations and global standards for product identification, security, and tagging; and the need for enhanced traceability to improve quality and procedures are influencing crucial transformation in the Retail and CPG sector. The implications of resisting these improvements and other related forthcoming challenges are possibly lost delivery stations and a weakened competitive posture. By allowing information & computing power available everywhere and anytime, firms can more quickly adapt to these difficulties and the continuously changing external environment. Aside from this, they can noticeably improve what they deliver, how they run, and probably their profitability.

Indian Situation Analysis

The Indian frigid chain industry is very large and estimated to come to be around Rs 10,000 to 15,000crore, which is growing at a rate around 20-25 percent and is likely to touch Rs 40,000crore by 2015.It was about a century ago this Sector had become. In India bulk of cold storage establishments are under-utilized or totally unused for almost all of the entire year. There is a huge gap of around 60% in cold storage area infrastructure and 80% in mobile cold storage conveniences like refrigerated trucks and rail wagons. By the entire year 2012, the chilly chain industry expects to visit a huge capacity addition as there is an expected upsurge in the cold storage expenditure.

Current status of frigid storages in India:

The cold safe-keeping infrastructure in India was made way back in 1960′s typically for potatoes and asa paper example potato seeds and also the investments in wintry storage were very less throughout that time. Nationwide provider of cold storage services is nonexistent in those days. The number of cold storages in India is approximately 5316 and the full total capacity is around 23333694 mTs. The quantity of Private sector cool storages in India take into account 4820 with a capacity of 222343607mTs, cooperative sector 363 quantities with 989445 mTs essay title, Consumer sector take into account 133 quantities with a potential of 100642 mTs. The existent cold storage features typically serve the potato goods. There is a lack of facilities such as for example cold storage vegetable, cold storage fruits, cold storage area tamarind, cold storage fish, cold storage meats, and cold storage area milk and milk products.. Cold storage services are available for just 10% of the produce. In India Transport of fruit and veggies through cold chain is nearly negligible, whereas in US it really is around 80-85% in the US and for Thailand it is around 30-40%. In India, due to the current inefficiencies in the source chain around Rs 1 lakh crore worthy of of fruit and veggies are wasted each year.

Cold chain in India -Reality:

Modern Post Harvest Administration is non existent

Lack of World Class Integrated Cold Supply Chain In the united states and also Isolated Retailers without Logistics Support

Using Services of Freezing Stores with Archaic Storage space Technology

The cold storage establishments are used mainly for low benefit products like potatoes

The present cold storage area facilities bring about Loss of quality and hence value of the perishables

The duration period for storage generally influenced by the marketplace imbalances

India chilly chains potential and options:

India may be the second major producer of vegatables and fruits on the globe which contributes for about 10% of the full total fruit production on earth. India is the greatest producer of fruits (32mT anually) on earth, which is approximately 8 % of the global development; India can be the second largest producer of vegetables on the planet (first being China), producing around 71 mT anually, which is about 15% share on the planet market. The key location in India is Foodstuff processing and it processes about 1.3% of its total fruits and vegetable where as it is certainly 80% in USA, 70% in France, 80% in Malaysia and 30% in Thailand. To become a top exporter and processor of fruit and veggies, India needs a high quality cold chain. Because of lack of cold storage establishments and energy infrastructure about 40 percent of the vegetables and fruit grown in India (40 mT worthwhile $13 billion) gets wasted every year, which is huge enough to feed countries like Brazil and Vietnam.

The reason for this huge wastage may be the wide gaps that are existing in the cool chain and there is absolutely no well equipped frosty chain for the preservation of vegatables and fruits. The Infrastructure for Freezing chain is not existing for the produced capacities and same is the case with storage, likewise these close storage services are not available close to the farms, furthermore to these the transportation (temperature controlled) is also inefficient. So that it is vital that you establish top notch cold safe-keeping logistics, which play an essential role in minimizing the global food shortage by eliminating wastages, which would provide you with us enough scope to feed various parts of the world.

The main initiatives which authorities of India has taken up to improve this sector are

Allowing 100% Foreign direct Investment

Provided complete excise duty exemption on wintry chain refrigeration equipment (comprising compressor, condenser products, evaporator), which reduced the costs substantially by around 16%.

These plan initiatives taken by the government have signalled the prevailing wintry chain majors in India to create their own back-end logistics.

Existing Players in India

The Leading Cool chain companies in India with founded chilly chain infrastructure are the following:

Container Company of India (Concor),

Indraprastha Cold Chain,

Glacio Cold Chain.

Bulaki Deep Freeze


Refcon Carriers



Gateway Distiparks

R.K. Foodland

Adani Group

Future Group






Cochin. Mumbai, Delhi International airports

Aditya Birla Group

Apollo Everest kool Solutions

The existing players are taking major steps in expanding their capacities, which are as follows:

Snowman and Kausar, two significant names in the wintry chain Industry have been bought over. Gatia ,a logistics organization in Hyderabad obtained Kausar India, Gateway Distiparks, the Transportation & logistics major acquired a controlling stake in Snowman Frozen Food.The Future Group has carried backward integration, from foodstuff retailing to safe-keeping and transportation; with the launch of Potential Logistics. Ahmadabad founded Adani Group revamped its chilly chain logistics facilities just lately. Main players like Bharti, ITC, Reliance, Aditya Birla Group, Bharti the Godrejs, the Tatas and the Future Group has declared billion dollar investments which give you a ready marketplace for third-party frosty chain logistics players. Apart from the Global giants and the Indian corporate the airport infrastructure corporations and the railways are also planning to build refrigerated warehouses and perishable goods cargo centres in the united states in capture the share in the booming retail sector.

The major airports like Cochin International Airport, Mumbai International Airport, Delhi AIRPORT TERMINAL and Greenfield international airport projects such as Bangalore and Hyderabad will be also establishing refrigerated warehouses for perishable cargoes up coming to the airports and started to tap the frigid chain market. Cochin International Airport is building a state-of-the-art center for perishable cargo, which can handle about 40,000 million tonnes perishable cargo yearly and which would help the farmers of the point out who are cultivating such products.Apollo Everest Kool Alternatives, which is a joint venture of Spire Group and Apollo features plans to set up at least 15 temperature-controlled warehouses in India. The other major businesses showing interest in frigid chain market in India involve Snowman Frozen Food (sold-out), a jv between, Nichirei Logistics Group, Mitsubishi Corp & Gateway Distiparks. Fresh and Healthy Enterprises has set up a 100 per cent subsidiary for wintry chain logistics with a short capacity of 12,000 tonnes at Rai in Sonepat, Haryana and features further plans to expand it to over a dozen cold storages soon, Apollo-Everest Cool Alternatives a joint venture formed by the Delhi-established Apollo Tyres and the Spire Band of Canada have plans to construct 15 temperature-controlled warehouses in India with an expense of $250 million; Adani Agrifresh among the Top retail chain offered its retail business to get started on a cold storage source chain for fruit and veggies in over a dozen top cities of the country.

Cold Chains in various Industries

Special features of Indian Cold chain marketplace for important product segments receive in the desk below.




- Amounts upto 90% of existing cold safe-keeping capacity


- High outsourcing demand.

- Seasonal-Large variation in

peak and non-peak demand.

- No dominant participant among service providers


- All the market is captured by Snowman and RK Food-both pan India players

Fruits & Vegetables

- Predictable, Secure and High demand over summer and winter.

- No dominant player on the market.

- Marketplace dominated by Domestic players. A lot more than 60% demand achieved by small/ local/regional players

Dairy products

(Butter & Cheese)

- High demand throughout the year.

- Major players not so active

- Significant talk about of small players

Ice Cream

-Seasonal High demand in peak season

- High growth

- 35% demand shared by small players

The major products are Potato, apple which contributes Rs 16050 million to the frosty chain market.

Other products are:



Imported Fresh Fruits & Vegetables


Exports By sea (Seafood, Meat, Poultry, Fruits and vegetables)


Chocolate Industry


Dairy Industry


Meat & Poultry (domestic)


Ice-cream Industry


Processed potato


Emerging segments (flavoured milk/yoghurt)


Cool Chain Transportation


Source: Global AgriSystem Ltd

Cold Chain in Pharmaceutical Industry

In the pharmaceutical supply chain, the chain customers have different requirements to meet up for material handling, warehousing, storing, product packaging and distributing the pharmaceutical goods which are hypersensitive to the environment. The ideal pharmaceutical cold chain should be capable of coping with changing product portfolios, the requirements once and for all Storage and Distribution Methods, current regulatory trends, quality management, risk assessment elements, and temperature monitoring.

Pharmaceutical cold chain developments:

Manufacturers are being held in charge of any defects in the merchandise in cold chain supervision. E.g. determining, maintaining and monitoring temperature levels during shipment.

The operations and control of environmental elements across the supply chain is being given greater emphasis. E.g. Vacuum packaging , Transportation options in cold chain, etc.

Temperature control and monitoring is being employed to reduce the risks and increase efficiency. 36% of most major and significant defects authorized by the Drugs and Healthcare Goods Regulatory Agency during 2003/2004 were related to the control and monitoring of storage and transportation temperatures.

Heightened priority of sufferer safety due to the occurrence of multiple uncontrolled variables in the distribution procedure, developing an appropriate temp and humidity monitoring plan is essential to protect the quality of environmentally sensitive pharmaceutical product and ensure patient basic safety.

Increased Importance of the Pharmaceutical Cold Chain

In 2003, out of the $400 billion products, 10% were biopharmaceuticals.

The biopharmaceutical market’s compound annual development rate(CAGR) was 21% which was notably more than the approximately 11% CAGR of the traditional pharmaceutical market in the period 1999 to 2003The biopharmaceuticals are highly delicate to temp. This increases the value of the pharmaceutical cool chain.

The standard techniques normally implemented in the frigid chain are:

Information of shipping construction and the kind of packaging used, should be declared.

In the labeling component, the storage rules and particular precaution that should be taken should be included.

Mode of transportation ought to be approved by respective authorities.

The finished items in the shipment will be verified to check on any tampering or damaging of the containers.

The manufacturer should obtain the evidence that the requirements for shipping and delivery e.g. temperature control have already been fulfilled.

Some important aspects of Pharmaceutical frigid chain are:

Some leading logistics firms and carriers which have complex infrastructure e.g. electronic digital tracking, online export documentation provide can assists the shipping party.

In cold chain, the use of refrigerated warehouses, refrigerator trucks, refrigerated containers, refrigerated ships and refrigerator cars is common.

Another important service required is the insulated shipment containers or other specialized packaging.

The role of Temperatures data loggers and RFID tags is usually to greatly help monitor the temperature background of the warehouse or vehicle etc. as well as the temperature history of the product being shipped. They also help in determination of the rest of the shelf life of product.

The key portion is documentation. There will be set of rules for each part of the chain to maintain proper data. Incomplete or Inaccurate paperwork in customs can lead to delays. So all of the established protocols ought to be followed e.g. quantity of copies and different information details.

Quality Management Process (QMP) and Risk Evaluation Process (RAP)

Factors to be considered for the QMP may include but are not limited to the: Organization, functions and responsibilities, procedure, trained resources, implementation plan, compliance switch control, on-period delivery of right item, quality metrics, constant enhancements, and monitoring client satisfaction.

Areas to become assessed in RAP include: Compliance with rules, guidances and quality standards product account, physical and chemical stableness environment (temperature

Mapping, temperature control, heat range and humidity monitoring), method of transportation (ground, air flow, sea), shipment vacation spot (domestic, export), package (principal and secondary), people (standard operating procedure, training, communication, documentation, recognizing, addressing, correcting adverse events, and transformation controls).

TMS- Temperature Monitoring System

The determining factor of a temperatures monitoring system (chemical, mechanical or electronic) may be the amount of info required. Generally the temperature monitor gear is the main the main Cold chain system. If the suppliers are experiencing the infrastructure for high quality checks, the firm may use more complex, precise and superior temperature data loggers which provide all the relevant information in approved format. The info includes record of temperatures and humidity including time and date in addition to specific identification.

All equipment utilized for recording, monitoring and retaining temperature and humidity conditions should initially end up being validated and thereafter calibrated regularly. The certifications are given by the top rated suppliers in the industry indicating the grades about the product quality required for the monitoring.

Cold Chain in Floriculture Industry

Flowers will be perishable in nature. It really is observed that small heat differences can bring about very significant flower quality changes. There exists a negative effect on the useful existence of the plants with the increase in temperature in transportation. It is further affected by increase in the duration for which the flowers were subjected to such high temperature. In India, because of inadequate cold-chain control, the postharvest losses are extremely substantial. The estimated losses are 40%, depending after the commodity at many stages. Flowers ought to be cooled to temperatures ranging in 330 F to 410 F without the delay. Higher temperatures not only reduce the useful-life but also increase the respiration-rate. It is discovered that the respiration of chop flowers increased exponentially with increase in storage temperatures. Proper cold-chain supervision of flowers increases the flowers’ marketability. Chilly storage enables top quality stems to be held for longer periods before sale and ensures that the flowers nonetheless have an excellent shelf lifestyle(called as vase life ) if they reach the market-place.

Cold Chain in Dairy Market: Amul Case Study

Life cycles of various product lines of Amul will vary, for example items like milk, lassi and flavored milk has to be refrigerated from procurement, processing to end distribution stage. Milk is certainly procured from regional cooperative societies or contract procurers. Pasteurization, refrigeration and packaging are completed in regional centers itself. These centers are completely owned by Amul in some places and outsourced in other areas. Thirty to forty SKU’s of packaged milk, flavored milk and additional similar items are supplied in plastic material crates filled up with ice for end mile distribution to the nearest market i.e. different parts of cities, suburbs and also to rural areas. Since crates are little loading and unloading is done manually, so it does not require complex tools. Empty crates are cut back as part of Reverse Logistics for following day dispatching of milk. For ice lotions, Srikhand, Butter and various other such products High-Tech refrigerated transportation system is used. Amul is earliest mover in India for tetra packed dairy food. It sells these under the brands Amul Sakthi and Nutramul. It has additionally introduced products like wintry coffe, butter milk and Lassi in tetra packs. These have a life time of six months to one year. These usually do not require cold storage features and sent in corrugated boxes in combination with stretched plastic. Amul has the largest cold storage area network in India (a lot more than 18000 facilities).

Challenges & Issues

Cold storage sector is facing following challenges

1. Lack of Uniform Technology standards: There is lack of uniform digital and bar code expectations. International standards vary widely, and domestic standards are nearly as disparate, creating needless paperwork and profit-taking delays.

2. Consolidation: The craze toward consolidation sprung from the growing tendency for warehouses to act as shipping venues, as well as the entry into the market by warehouse holders. Though consolidation spurred overall market growth, smaller warehouses possess struggled to contend with larger industry players.

3. Capital Investment and Technology: The cool chain Safe-keeping and logistics is certainly a capital-intensive industry (expenditure for refrigeration tools and property) with a large capacity cold safe-keeping chain includes a high payback amount of around five years.

4. Incumbency advantages independent of size: Existing players like Snowman have built expertise by operating in this industry for longer periods with time & use imported hi-tech gear, which innovative entrants find difficult.

5. Economies of scales: It is a largely untapped, fragmented & filled with unorganized tiny size players. No player has accomplished economies of scale and thus a new a new entrant with deep pockets can go into this industry but still be at a major cost advantage.

6. Human Capital and Domain Expertise: It requires skilled recruiting for operating and managing the chilly storage facilities. Lack of technically qualified employees can be among the hindering elements for Indian cold storage space industry.

7. Lack of logistical Support: Small land holdings remain a challenge because it requires multiple farm gate collection centers. Likewise Fragmented cold chain industry hasn’t encouraged the progress of cool logistics for horticulture manufacture. Standard refrigerated systems are inefficient and poorly designed. Also, domestic industry for fresh perishable produce is underdeveloped.

8. Uneven Distribution of frigid stores: Available capacity is mostly centered on single commodities. Problem of financial viability can be their because of seasonality.

Other pertinent issues are

1. Erratic power supply

2. Great operational costs and low yield products.

3. Superior insurance/ Risk insurance policy coverage premiums.

4. Large gap popular supply conducive to little unorganized providers.

5. Government taxes and commercial regulations.

Role of Government

Government policy works as a catalyst in this industry. Following will be the salient top features of Government policies for frosty storage sector:

1. Encourages Investments – Agri food is discovered as priority sector.

2. Encourages arranged sector- ECB way opened, Import duty calm.

3. Liberalizes Advertising Norms- Focus on increased retail, improved supply chain.

4. Rationalizes Tax Laws- Going towards uniform VAT/GST.

5. Provides Grants and subsidies- VG financing, Grants, Infrastructure status

6. Eases foreign investment- 100% FDI in meals sector. ECB for frigid chain.

Government of India Initiatives

1. Excised waved on F&V, meats preparations, ice-cream, different RTE food mixes.

2. Automatic authorization for 100% foreign equity in processed food items. External commercial borrowing opened (except in beer, alcohol etc.)

3. Priority lending status; Duties decreased on imports; Zero program tax on installations.

4. EOI floated for 30 mega foodstuff parks- allocated US $ 1.02 billion by 2012. Goal of the scheme is to provide backward and forward linkages as well develop efficient and sustainable supply chain.

5. GOI initiating National Highway Development Program and partnering with Indian railways to establish frosty chain infrastructure. Indian railway is usually likely to invite private parties to run refrigerated container trains for transporting agricultural items in the united states.

6. Integrated food regulation(FSSA) notified and ready for implementation.

7. Task drive on Development of cold chain established and national centre for Chilly Chain Development (NCCD).

In Budget 2011- Freezing chain Industry

Industries like fertilizer and cold-storage space chains will gain, with capital expenditure in fertilizer being cared for as infrastructure investment. Hyderabad established express distribution and supply chain solutions supplier Gati logistics has said the endowment of infrastructure status to cold-storage area chains & logistics in the Budget will help in realizing its strategies to build cold storage units in the united states. Gati is establishing 10 cold storage crops over the India at an purchase around Rs 200 crore in the coming four years.

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